Setting-up A Buddhist Altar & Sacred Space
Ven. David Xi-Ken Shi
This guide is meant to assist in creating a home sacred space with an altar for your Buddhist practice. It is intended for the Ch’an/Zen practitioner, as the various Buddhist schools have different practice intentions that are reflected in how the various elements of a space and altar are utilized. As contemporary Zen teachers that work to find pragmatic lessons in all we do in life, we feel that how we approach our intentional ritual practice should be no exception. It is not what we do, but how our body-mind is during practice that matters.
An alter is one element of creating a sacred space where we retreat to quite the mind and sit in awareness. The environment associated with this special space is what matters, not what is in it. However, having meditation cushions, items that act to remind us of the importance of what we have dedicated ourselves to practice, and a consistent location is of importance. How we go about fulfilling these requirements will be different for each of us, depending on the various demands our private lives require. There will be as many options and materials to use as there are creative ideas. There are very few rules to follow.
So, enjoy the project and send us pictures of what you have accomplished. While Wayne Sensei and I will not be able to visit your space in order to bless it, if you ask us to, we will do so with intentional mindfulness during one of our daily monastic services.
Choose a location that is away from the more active areas of your home. This is often a bedroom. However, if you use a bedroom that is shared with a loved one, make sure you talk this over with them in order to obtain a consensus. It is quite OK if the space is shared with others. The area should be able to be shut off from the other spaces in the home during meditation/practice periods, if possible. A space with limited or low light, and that is well ventilated, is preferable. The idea here is to limit distractions, and create a space that is comfortable and inviting.
As mentioned, it is not necessary that the space be permanently set-up. You might keep your supplies in a container and the cushions stored in a closet or under a bed, for example. You can also acquire a wall altar that has doors that shut when not in use. This is an excellent alternative for small spaces. Many altars have been set-up on a bookshelf, and the meditation cushions brought out during practice time. So be creative. But the one basic requirement is that the space be consistent. As we train the mind to be quite, having a familiar space helps.
A home altar is difficult to define. It acts as a focal point of our practice space. It is an anchor, and in many ways, represents our intentions. As such, it can be very personal, and what we bring to it gives special meaning as we practice with it. There are very few necessary elements that may be considered necessary; everything else are personal touches.
We recommend that your altar consist minimally of three tea candles to represent the Three Jewels, an incense burner, and a representation of an Universal expression. The Universal expression is where your creative imagination comes into play. Most often it is a statue of Buddha. But that element is not necessary. Other iconographic images can replace the image of Buddha. They can be an eight-spoke Dharma Wheel, an image of the mudra hand, a specific image of a column, a thrown, flowers – especially the lotus, something like a fan with the Heart Sutra printed on it, maybe a rock or other natural element even. Perhaps a nice scroll or print on the wall behind your altar is something that you already have that you enjoy. Some altars have a ‘minimalist’ look with the candles, an incense bowl and a few flowers. Unlike the Tibetan or Pure Land Buddhist schools, it is not necessary to face your altar in a specific direction or level of the house. A basement space is fine, and often preferred. Don’t think your altar must be like what you see in temples and practice centers. A home altar should reflect your own needs for achieving a body-mind state of peace and contentment.
The layout of the altar can vary, but the one we use that is more common to Ch’an Buddhism and adopted by EDIG is: the Universal expression such as a Buddha should be placed in the middle. The three tea candles are placed one to the left and right sides, and one in the center of this image. The incense burner is placed behind the central image. If you don’t have space behind the Buddha image, place it in front but behind the central tea light. Other items can be placed on the altar but in a way that does not disrupt this basic layout. For example, I keep a picture of my three teachers to the far left, with a red votive candle in front of my late teachers picture.
Place your altar along a wall or in the center of a room. Put your meditation cushions in front of it about five feet back giving you room to light the candles and perform the incense offering ritual. If you have a chan bell, it should be placed to the left of the cushion, and a fish-drum to the right. This is not necessary at all. But as your practice matures, you will want to add these to your practice space in order to do bell meditation and chanting.
Have fun putting your altar together, but be thoughtful. Maybe your altar is going to be a “work in progress” until you find the right elements that express your personal practice intentions. Use the pictures below for some ideas.
If you are interested in obtaining an EDIG Practice Manual, please send us an email at firstname.lastname@example.org